Jul.04

Scaling Up (Notes)

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My notes from Scaling Up

  • Introduction
    • Leaders are readers.
    • Overview
      • To scale up a business… focus on 3 deliverables
        • Reduce by 80% time it takes top team to manage the business
        • Refocus senior team on market-facing activities
        • Realign everyone else
      • Organizations attain these 4 outcomes
        • At least double the rate of cash flow
        • Triple the industry average profitability
        • Increase the valuation of the firm
        • Help the stakeholders
      • 3 Barriers to scaling up
        • Leadership – capabilities to delegate and predict
        • Scalable Infrastructure – lack of systems & structures to handle communication and decisions
        • Marketing – attracting new customers, talent, advisors
      • To overcome these barriers, 4 fundamentals
        • In leading People – establish a handful of rules, repeat yourself a lot, act consistently
          • Core Values
        • In setting Strategy
          • what you’re planning to do really matters to enough customers
          • it differentiates you from your competition
        • In driving Execution
          • 3 Key Habits
            • Seat a handful of Priorities
            • Gather quantitative and qualitative Data
              • Review weekly
            • Effective daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, annual meetings
        • In managing Cash
          • Pay attention
      • Most people overestimate what they can do in 1 year and underestimate what they can do in 10 years
      • Routine sets you free
        • Goals without routines are wishes
        • Routines without goals are aimless
      • 4D Framework for growth firms (download at scalingup.com)
        • Driver: Coaching, Learning, Technology
        • Demands: People, Process
        • Disciplines: Priorities, Data, Meeting Rhythms
        • Decisions: People, Strategy, Execution, Cash
      • Right Questions
        • Help leadership teams formulate the right questions
        • Which of the 4 Decisions (4D) need the most attention next?
      • People
        • Do you have the “right people doing the right things right” inside your organization?
        • Would you keep all your existing customers?
        • The tools
          • One-Page Personal Plan (OPPP)
            • 4 Key decisions
              • Relationships
              • Achievements
              • Rituals
              • Wealth
            • Mirror 4Ds
            • Having a strong and fulfilled personal life provides an important foundation for sustaining your efforts in the business
          • Function Accountability Chart (FACe)
            • Bottleneck is always at the top of the bottle
            • List of seats (functions) that ll organizations must fill
            • Delegate these functions to people who fit your culture
              • Don’t need to be managed
              • Regularly wow the team
            • Designate 1 or 2 KPIs for each function
            • What activities each senior leader needs to be focused on day-to-day
            • Decide on outcomes accountable to each function
            • Normally represent line items on the financial statements
          • Process Accountability Chart (PACe)
            • When functions aren’t working well together, the firm can stall
            • Delineate the 4 to 9 processes that drive the business
            • Designate who is accountable for each process
            • Decide on 2 or 3 KPIs that track the health of the process
              • Length of time, from start to finish, for a specific process
      • Strategy
        • Strategic thinking – senior leaders meting weekly… discussing a few big strategic issues including those outlined in the SWT and 7 Strate tools
        • Execution planning – much larger team implementing the broader strategy.
          • Annual and quarterly priorities, outcomes and KPIs
          • Frontline employees
          • Participation creates buy-in
        • Think, Plan, Act, Learn cycle
        • Vision Summary – simplified One-Page Strategic Plan (OPSP) framework
        • SWT – Strengths, Weaknesses, Trends
          • Focuses on exploring broader external trends beyond their own industry or geography
          • Spot opportunities before the competition
        • 7 Strata of Strategy – Designed to provide the kind of differentiation and barriers that allow you to dominate your niche
          • What words to you own?
          • Who are your core customers? What 3 Brand Promises are you making them? How do you know you’re keeping those promises?
          • What if your Brand Promise Guarantee?
          • What is your One-PHRASE Strategy that likely upsets customers but is key to making a ton of money & blocking your competition?
          • 3 to 5 Activities that fit the definition of the essence of differentiation?
          • What is your X-factor that completely wipes out any and all rivals?
          • What are your Profit per X and BHAG?
        • One-Page Strategic Plan (OPSP)
          • You need this page first
          • Designed to drive alignment, accountability, & focus
      • Execution
        • Are all processes running without drama?
        • You have execution issues if
          • There is needless drama
          • Everyone seems to be working more hours, fixing things
          • Company is generating less than 3x industry average profitability
        • Tools
          • Who, What, When (WWW)
            • When is no longer than the time between meetings
            • Break it into pieces so it can be accomplished
          • Rockefeller Habits Checklist
            • 10 fundamental habits that support the successful execution of your strategy
            • Dramatically increase profitability
            • Reduce the time it takes to manage the business
            • “Preflight” checklist for keeping your company growing
            • Focus on 1 or 2 each quarter
            • The Habits
              • Executive team is healthy and aligned
                • See The Five Dysfunctions of a Team
                • Executive team needs… level of trust… permits true debate and constructive conflict to occur.
              • Everyone is aligned with the #1 thing that needs to be accomplished this quarter to move the company forward
              • Communication rhythm is established and information moves through the organization accurately and quickly
              • Every facet of the organization has a person aligned with accountability for ensuring goals are met
                • Communication is #1 challenge; accountabilities is #2
                • Both vertically (across functions) and horizontally (across processes)
              • Ongoing employee input is collected to identify obstacles and opportunities
                • Weekly qualitative data must come from your employees
                  • Sales & frontline
                  • Talk to one employee each week & ask what should we start/stop/keep doing?
              • Reporting and analysis of customer feedback data is frequent and accurate as financial data
              • Core Values and Purposes are “alive” in the organization
                • “Why” behind everything you do
              • Employees can articulate the following key components of the company strategy accurately
                • 10- to 25-year goal (BHAG)
                • Who the core customers are
                • 3 Brand Promises
                • What the company does (elevator pitch)
              • All employees can answer quantitatively whether they had a good or bad week
                • Column 7 of the OPSP
                • Priorities and KPIs for the week
              • The company’s plans and performance are visible to everyone
      • Cash
        • Consistent sources of cash
          • Great by Choice (Amazon)
            • Directly addresses growth firms
          • Growth sucks cash – the first law of entrepreneurial gravity
        • Modified cash flow statement
          • Cash that came in past 24 hrs
          • Cash that flowed out
          • How cash is looking over next 30 to 90 days
        • Cash Conversion Cycle (CCC)
          • How long it takes after you spend a dollar for it to make its way back into your pocket
          • HBR: How Fast Can Your Company Afford to Grow?
        • The Power of One – 7 Main financial levers to improve cash
          • Price
          • Volume
          • Cost of Goods Sold / Direct Costs
          • Operating Expenses
          • Accounts Receivable
          • Inventory
          • Accounts Payable
        • Cash Acceleration Strategies (CASh)
          • Break down the CCC into 4 components
          • Brainstorm one of three ways to increase the cash flow in the business
        • Goal is to reverse the first law of entrepreneurial gravity
        • Build a company that can self-fund its own growth
      • Summary
        • scalingup.com
          • Sign up for weekly insights
        • growthinstitute.com
        • Alignwithgazelles.com
        • Discipline and perserverance
    • Barriers
      • Entrepreneurial life cycle: start, scale, sell
      • … an investment firm to unlock the growth and profitability of additional companies. Incubating multiple firms…
      • Grow Where You’re Planted
        • stick to the businesses and markets you know best
      • Conquer complexity – complexity generates 3 barriers (remove these barriers & the anchor you’ve been dragging will now be the wind at your back) to scaling up:
      • Leadership
        • Inability to grow leaders who have the capabilities to delegate and predict
        • Predition
          • Minutes ahead
          • Frequent interaction with
            • customers
            • competitors
            • employees
        • Delegation
          • Letting go
          • Trusting others
          • To get to 10 employees, delegate where you’re weak
          • To get to 50 employees, delegate where you’re strong
          • Strength of the top leader becomes the weakness of the organization
          • How to delegate is one of the most important skills a leader must develop
            • Priorities – One Page Strategic Plan. What needs to be done
            • Data – KPIs. Measurement system for monitoring progress
            • Meeting Rhythm. Feedback
            • Recognition and Reward
          • Emergence: The Connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities, and Software
          • Holacracy may still need champions: quasi-team leaders.
        • Repetition
          • Deliver frequent messaging and metrics to reinforce these key attributes of the company and culture
            • Core Values
            • Core Purpose
            • BHAG
            • Priorities / Themes
      • Scalable Infrastructure
        • Systems and structures handle complexities in communications and decisions
      • Marketing
        • Attract new relationships and address competitive pressures
        • #1 functional barrier to scaling up is the lack of an effective marketing department
        • Marketing’s role
          • Determine the right what we should be selling
          • to the best who’s
          • how best we should sell
          • at the right price
        • Marketing meeting
          • 1 hr / week
        • List of top 25 influencers
          • Spending time each week
          • How to network to these people
          • Convince these influencers to help
          • The more influential the names, the more potential you have to scale bigger and faster
        • 4 P’s of marketing
        • Olgivy’s 4 E’s of Marketing – how to execute better the 4Es of the business
          • Experience
          • Exchange
          • Everyplace
          • Evangelism
        • Marketing’s job is to identify and attract the right customers to the venture and arm the online marketing activities with plenty of information to help them make the sale.
        • Market Dynamics
          • Market timing trumps all
            • Too early or too late with your great idea and you miss the wave
          • As the firm scales from $1m to $10m in revenue is the time to establish healthy organizational habits and a scalable infrastructure
          • Startup to $1 or $2m in sales, focus on revenue
          • $1m to $10m in sales, focus on cash
            • Growth sucks cash
            • Company will make a 10x jump in size
            • Demands for cash will soar
      • Main function of a business leader: build a predictable revenue and profit engine in an unpredictable marketplace and world
        • Maintain a steady pace
        • Predictability, driven by effective processes, key to generating significant wealth
  • Scaling Up People
    • Introduction
    • The Leaders
      • Recognize and prioritize the People challenges
      • Amazon’s 2-pizza rule
        • no team should be so big that it can’t be fed with two pizzas
      • Accountability
        • Belongs to ONE person
        • “ability to count”
        • tracking the progress
        • doesn’t mean makes decisions
        • If more than one person is accountable, then no one is accountable
        • As leaders advance up the ranks, more accountability less control
          • Gap between accountability and authority is bridged by communication, persuasion, education, visioning, etc.
      • Responsiblity
        • Anyone with the “ability to respond” proactively
        • Includes all the people who touch a particular process or issue
      • Authority
        • Person or team w/ final decision-making power
      • One-Page Personal Plan (OPPP)
        • framework for people to plan their personal life
        • Establish personal priorities and align them w/ your professional goals
        • 4 Decisions to build a thriving business
          • People, Strategy, Execution, Cash
        • Parallel areas in personal life
          • Relationships
            • 5Fs
              • Faith, Family, Friends, Fitness, Finance
              • Reminder to set priorities
            • Top of Column 1
              • People with whom you want a lasting relationship (10 to 25 years)
                • Employees, customers, family, friends
              • Communities
                • Strong correlation between happiness and the number of diverse communities in which you are active
            • Look at groups listed & pick a few key relationships to focus your attention next 12 months & next 90 days
            • People who are destructive or distract you from your higher goals
              • Relationships you want to end gracefully
          • Achievements
            • Major ways you’d like to make an impact beyond reaching monetary goals
              • set objectives in these key areas
            • Personal life – how you can make a real difference to the key people in your life
            • Short- Medium- and Long-term Achievements relative to the people listed in the relationship column
              • Might include stopping the pursuit of achievements that are taking you away from the relationships that matter most
          • Rituals
            • Routines will help you achieve your larger goals
            • Establish rituals with people supports your bigger goals
              • Have a peer coach
            • Bad habits you wish to stop
          • Wealth
      • Function Accountability Chart (FACe)
        • clarifies the people who are accountable for scaling the business
        • “right people doing the right things right”
        • Common set of functions that must exist in ALL companies
          • To scale, figure out which function to delegate next. Delegate to leaders who
            • Fit culturally
            • Do not need to be managed
            • Regularly wow the team
        • 1 or 2 KPIs for each function
          • Outcomes expected
          • Normally represent line items on financial statements
        • Helps you diagnose where you have people and performance gaps on the leadership team
        • Move people up or over into these positions at any time
          • Only bring in from the outside every 6-9 months
          • Take it slow when bringing outsiders into senior leadership roles
        • Whatever the strength of a leader often becomes the weakness of the organization
          • Leaders have a tendency to hold on too tight
          • Leaders must make a counterintuitive decision and find people who exceed their own capabilities
        • Illuminates immediate change at the top of the organization
        • Completing the FACe
          • Step 1
            • Don’t list titles – focus on the jobs that need to get done
          • Step 2
            • Agree on people accountable for each function
            • Do you have more than 1 person accountable for a function?
            • Does someone’s name show up in more boxes than everyone else’s?
            • Do you have any boxes with no names in them?
              • “All of us” really means “none of us”
              • Pick someone
                • Doesn’t mean this person is the boss
                • Means they monitor the situation, report to leadership team, alert the team if there are issues
            • Are you enthusiastic about the person you have in each box?
          • Step 3
          • Step 4
            • Results / Outcomes
            • Use P&L and Balance Sheet
            • Assign a person for each line item
            • Rotating the P&L clockwise 90 degrees exercise (pg 50)
        • Executives with good companies tend to share their titles; executives at strong and great companies share what their accountabilities are in a very measurable fashion
        • Organizational Structure
          • Matrix Organization
            • Heads of the business units need to lead as if they are individual CEOs
          • Your company is a living organism that needs to survive in an environment that’s always changing
      • Process Accountability Chart (PACe)
        • lists the processes, and people accountable, that keep the business running smoothly
        • who is accountable for each of the 4 to 9 processes that drive business
        • how each process will be measured
        • Lean
        • Completing the PACe
          • Step 1
            • Name the 4 to 9 key processes
          • Step 2
            • Assign accountability for each process to a specific person
            • Job is to
              • monitor the process
              • let the team know if there are any issues
              • lead a regular meeting to fix or improve that particular process
          • Step 3
            • Identify KPIs
              • Time, cost or quality
        • Mapping the Process
          • Map out the steps and decision points as the process currently flows
          • Begin streamlining the process
            • Eliminate wasteful steps
            • Remove obstacles
          • Set KPIs at critical steps
          • Also becomes how-to manual
          • Revisit and examine one process every 90 days
            • With 4-9 processes, each will be reexamined every 12 to 24 months
        • Checklists
    • The Team
      • Get the Best Talent
        • Job Scorecard
          • details a person’s purpose for the job
          • desired outcomes
          • competencies, technical and cultural
          • specific and measurable outcomes… need to be accomplished in 1-3 years
          • candidate competencies that align with your culture and strategy
          • more important to hire for this kind of fit than for specific skills
        • Best Hires
          • Team of absolute specialists
          • Teams need to be well-rounded but their individual members don’t have to be.
        • Recruiting / Marketing Function
          • Minimum of 20 applicants per position
          • The best candidates are probably working somewhere else
            • Fish where there are fish
        • Topgrading Interview
          • Job application asks questions that align with values
            • Gatekeeper questions
          • Assess Systems’ pre-employment tests / OMG’s Sales Assessments
          • Who
          • Topgrading: The Proven Hiring and Promoting Method That Turbocharges Company Performance
          • Certified Master Practitioner via scalingup.com
          • Screening interview
            • Narrows list from 10 to 3 candidates
            • 5 powerful screening interview questions
            • 30 to 45 minutes
          • Chronological In-Depth Structured (CIDS) interview
            • 3- to 4-hour interview or middle or senior leader, 1- to 2-hour for entry level
            • Entire career history
            • Discovering behavioral and performance patterns
              • Past performance is the best indicator of future performance
          • Checking references
            • “What will ___ say about you?”
            • Threat of Reference Check, ToRC
        • Culture Fit
        • Test-Drive
          • Temp to permanent
          • Consulting
          • Pay to Quit
            • $2,000 first year
            • Goes up $1,000 every year until hits $5,000
        • Will, Values, Results, Skills (in this order)
          • Will – desire to excel
          • Values – test for culture fit
          • Results – can they deliver on KPIs?
          • Skills – least important / updated every 5 years
    • The Managers
      • Investments in training and coaching provide best returns to your business
      • People join companies; they leave managers
      • Keep Your Talent Engaged
        • Periodic 1-1 coaching ranked as the #1 key to being a successful leader
        • Coaching sessions with “direct supports” on five topics (aligned w/ 5 main activities)
          • 5: Hire fewer people, but pay them more
            • One great person can replace 3 good ones
            • Rigorous selection
            • Get the absolute best talent
            • Pay above-market rates
            • Invest heavily in training
            • Fairness does not mean sameness
          • 4: Give recognition, and show appreciation
            • Positive vs. negative ratio of 3:1
            • Thank people each and every day
          • 3: Set clear expectations and give employees a clear line of sight
            • How their work contributes to the greater objectives of the company
            • Align their individual priorities with those of the firm
            • Define the “what” not the “how”
              • Employees find their own way
            • Adequate and measurable targets – OPSP
              • KPIs – 2-3
              • Prioriteis
              • Critical Number – main bottleneck / must fix during the quarter
          • 2: Don’t demotivate, “dehassle”
            • Nothing is more frustrating for A players than having to work with B and C players
              • Hire only A players
            • Focus on ways to make your team’s job easier
              • Fire clients
              • Provide appropriate tools and resources
              • Policies and procedures frustrating?
          • 1: Help people play to their strengths
            • A strength isn’t just something you’re good at; it’s only a strength if it literally gives you strength
            • Weakness drains the life out of you
            • Help employees refocus and prune their jobs
              • Focus on activities that give them strength
              • Less on activities that make them weak
              • Take a couple of weeks & document all activities you love or loathe
              • Eliminate activities no one should have to do
              • Use the remaining list to create a Job Scorecard for a new position
            • StrengthsFinder assessment @ gallupstrengthcenter.com
              • Help your people achieve self-awareness of their strengths
            • Now, Discover Your Strengths
            • tmbc.comTrombone Player Wanted Marcus Buckingham
              • How to become a strengths-based organization
        • Manager or Leader?
      • Grow Your Talent
        • Onboarding
          • Needs to be a celebration, not paperwork
        • Orientation
          • Doing real work while emphasizing company’s values and purpose
          • All new recruits would spend a week working on a list of nagging internal projects
            • One Core Value reinforced each day
          • Scavenger Hunt
            • Excuse to meet and greet the new colleagues
              • Answer their questions about the company and culture
              • Involvement of senior management in the onboarding process is critical
          • People are exceptionally positive, receptive and willing to learn during this phase
            • Deep attachment to whatever you expose them to
        • Training
        • Growing People Through Coaching
          • Situational Leadership
            • right about of direction and support
            • depending on the competency and confidence of the person being coached
          • Development Cycle
            • reduces step-by-step the need for direction and support until a task can be fully delegated
            • One task might require specific how-to instructions, another might call for only some encouragement or nothing at all
          • Leadership and the One Minute Manager Updated Ed: Increasing Effectiveness Through Situational Leadership II
          • Requires a rhythm
            • Specific day each week or month
              • 1 hour if monthly
              • 20-30 minutes if weekly
          • Review Individual KPIs, Priorities, Critical Numbers
          • Recognize good performance & analyze underperformance
          • Discuss activities needed to get back on track
            • Put the focus on the process
          • Feedback on Core Values
            • Develop strategies to correct behavior
            • Timely feedback is the most effective
            • Prevents bad habits
          • Expose them to different experiences
            • Present new challenges
            • Experience learning occurs
            • Question employee’s task list
              • Love & Loathe exercise
              • Refocus activities on areas that the person is naturally drawn to but represents a challenge
          • Help Them Grow or Watch Them Go: Career Conversations Employees Want
          • Great coaches consistently get the most out of their people because they consistently put the most into their people
            • People are not resources you consume
  • Scaling Up Strategy
    • Intro
    • Core
      • Values, Purpose and Competencies
      • Link between People and Strategy
      • Left side of the OPSP
      • Core Values
        • Rules and boundaries… define the company’s culture and personality
        • Should / Shouldn’t test
        • Personality
        • Discerning the Core Values is a Discovery process, not the creation of a wish list of nice-to-haves.
        • Listed as phrases, not words
        • Not all feel-good
          • Values are neither good nor bad; they just are!
        • Describe each Core Value w/ a phrase, defined in a sentence or two & anchored w/ an actual story (or legend)
          • Bonus: create an avatar (see: Disney Institute)
      • Purpose
        • Core Values are the Soul, Purpose (mission) gives it heart
        • Purpose answers the question, “why?”
          • Why does what we do matter?
        • Powerful purpose trends to revolve around a single word
          • Central word or idea is then expanded into a phrase or two
        • Start w/ the question, “what do we do?”
          • Then ask “Why” several times
          • Keep asking until you get to your version of “Save the World” and then back up one step
        • Do not describe your Brand Promise
        • Out of this single idea should emerge a “stump speech”
          • reminding everyone of the big picture & “why we do what we do”
        • Mission = Purpose
      • Core Competencies
        • Company’s inherent strengths
        • The Core Competence of the Corporation
        • 3 attributes:
          • Not easy for competitors to imitate
          • Can be reused widely for many products and markets
          • Contribute to the benefits the end customer experiences and the value of the product or service to customers
        • Don’t define too narrowly
        • Core weaknesses is equally important
      • Storytelling (See DI)
        • Stories provide the explanation for Core Values
        • Identify some “legends” and current stories that represent each Value
      • Recruitment and Selection
        • Interview… how candidates align w/ your Core Values
        • Rate candidates
        • Goal = hire for a culture fit
        • Look for people who light up when talking about a core value
      • Onboarding
        • Design the process around the teaching of your Values & Purpose
      • Performance Appraisals & Handbooks
        • Core Values = framework for reviews
        • Organize your employee handbook into sections around each Core Value
        • Employees’ performance scored on how well they act on the Core Values
      • Recognition & Rewards
        • Organize your recognition & reward categories around your Core Values
        • Stories about people putting these Core Values to work for the betterment of the company
      • Themes
        • One of… Core Values… theme for the quarter
      • Everyday Reinforcement
        • Most important routine of the 8
      • Every time you praise or reprimand someone, tie it back to a Core Value or Purpose
    • 7 Strata of Strategy
      • Intro
        • framework for construction an robust strategy that differentiates your company from the competition & helps you establish the kind of roadblocks that allow you to dominate your niche in the marketplace
        • “page behind the page” (OPSP)
          • Columns 2 & 3
        • Keep it confidential!
        • senior leadership team should work on strategy, free from day-to-day firefighting
          • CEO’s primary job to set and drive the strategy of the business
        • Worksheet
        • The Council (Collins’ Good to Great, p 114-116)
          • Strategic Planning = Strategic Thinking & Execution Planning
          • 7 Strata framework + 4P’s of marketing = strategic thinking
            • product, place, price, promotion
          • 3 – 5 people, 1 hour each week
            • Discuss Strata
            • Iterate
              • Make a few decisions
              • Test them
              • Come back
              • Discuss
          • 11 guidelines for structuring a council
          • Don’t look for consensus – council gives advice to CEO
          • Job of CEO to make decisions
      • Words You Own (Mindshare)
        • Key is owning words that matter
        • Most important in driving revenue
        • tiny.cc/success-one-word
      • Sandbox and Brand Promises
        • Who / Where are your core customers
          • Juicy red core customer
          • Mine for the most profit over time
          • Profit Pools = Niche within any industry… 10% of the total customers… disproportionate percentage of the profit
          • Where to find them
        • What are you really selling them?
          • All sales are emotional, initiated through the heart then justified logically by the head
          • Must encompass a 100% solution – completely does the job a customer needs to accomplish
        • What are your three Brand Promises?
          • One that leads the list
          • Define quantitatively so they can be measured and monitored
          • Refrain from “quality,” “value,” or “service” – too vague
        • What methods do you use to measure whether you’re keeping those promises?
          • Kept Promise Indicators
      • Brand Promise Guarantee
      • One-Phrase Strategy
        • Key to making money
        • Key lever in your business model that drives profitability and helps you choose which customer desires to meet and which to ignore
        • Great brands don’t try to please everyone
          • Be the absolute best at meeting the needs/wants of a small but fanatical group of customers & the absolute worst at everything else
        • Ignore 93% of customers and focus on 7% that are fanatical
      • Differentiating Activities
        • 3-5 How’s
        • How you will execute your business differently from the competition
        • “activity” level of the business where true differentiation occurs
        • Something your competitor won’t or can’t do without great effort or expense
        • Can take years to develop
        • Different from norms of the industry
        • Helps you drive profitability
        • Blocks the competition
      • X-Factor
        • 10x – 100x Underlying Advantage
        • What is the one thing I hate most about my industry?
        • What is the choke point constraining the company?
        • You’re often too close to the situation and as blind as everyone else to the real problems that have been accepted as industry norms
        • Keep it confidential!
      • Profit per X & BHAG
        • Underlying economic engine of the business
        • Single KPI
          • Numerator can be any metric you like
          • Denominator is fixed
            • Represents company’s unique approach to scaling the business
            • Ties back to the One-phrase strategy
          • Ex: profit per long-term client
        • Big Hairy Audacious Goal (BHAG)
          • Best unit of measure for the BHAG is the X from the Profit per X
          • Measured in the same units as the X
          • Must align w/ the Purpose of the company
      • Summary
        • Payoff is huge if you can figure all this out
        • Nail down what you can & keep moving
        • It’s very difficult work; trust the process.
    • One Page Strategic Plan
      • Vision Summary
        • Simplified OPSP for firms w/ 50 or fewer employees
      • A vision is a dream with a plan
      • Answer 7 basic questions:
        • Who, what, when, where, how, why, should we or shouldn’t we?
      • Forces prioritization and simplicity
      • Must be concise
      • Git it down, then get it right.
      • Preserve the core / stimulate progress
      • Columns 1-3 preserve the core / holds steady over time
      • As you move right, becomes more dynamic
      • Summary
        • Framework that details your corporate vision
        • Common language to express that vision
        • Well developed routine for keeping the vision current
      • Column 1 – Core Values / Beliefs (Should / Shouldn’t)
        • Describe the personality of the organization
        • Core Values, Beliefs, Rules
      • Column 2 – Purpose, Profit per X and BHAG (Why)
        • The soul of the organization, then the heart
        • Actions
          • drive a quarterly conversation: what’s necessary, in the short run, to keep these long-term Vision items alive?
          • specific ways to reinforce the Core Values, Purpose & BHAG over the next 90 days
      • Column 3 – Targets, Sandbox and Brand Promises (Where)
        • Specific financial targets and priorities over next 3-5 years
        • In what time frame do we plan do double the revenue / size of the company?
          • 15% / year = 5 years
          • 25% / year = 3 years
          • 100% / year = 1 year
        • Sandbox / Strarum 2 off of the 7 Strata worksheet
          • Core customers (who) and what you plan to sell them
        • Brand Promises
        • Key Thrusts / Capabilities that must be pursued over next 3-5 years
        • Significant medium-term priorities
        • Clear strategic direction for the next several years
        • Assemble a board of advisers
      • Column 4 – Goals (What)
        • What are the #1 Priority and Key Initiatives for the company year
        • Start with financial outcomes at the top of the column
        • Jump to bottom and determine the Critical Number
          • Specific to one metric each year
          • People / Balance Sheet or Process / P&L
          • Pick a counterbalancing number on the other side to monitor, too
        • Middle of column – Key Initiatives to complete this year to achieve financial outcomes and hit Critical Number
          • Corporate New Year’s resolutions (less is more)
          • Revise them each time you close the books on fiscal year
      • Column 5 – Actions (How)
        • Mirrors column 4
        • How you’re going to contribute this quarter to accomplish the one-year goals
        • Rocks
          • Priorities that must be accomplished to achieve the quarterly financial outcomes & Critical Number
          • Who is accountable for each Rock
          • Simultaneous 13-week sprints
      • Column 6 – Theme, Scorecard Design, Celebration / Reward (Finish Lines and Fun)
      • Column 7 – Your Accountability (Who)
        • What every individual can do over the next quarter to help the organization succeed
        • Everyone is able to see how his or her daily actions link to the company’s goals
        • Your KPIs – Did we have a productive day / week
        • Your Quarterly Priorities
        • Critical Number
        • Make a connection between their day-to-day efforts and the goals and vision of the company
      • Along the top
        • People
          • Continually improve the company’s reputation with employees, customers and shareholders
          • Cash flow: Customers – Employees = Shareholders
        • Processes
          • Continually improve the company’s productivity in make/buy, sell, and record keeping
          • Make/buy = expenses
          • Sell = revenue
          • Recordkeeping = tracking it all
        • Choose 1 or 2 KPIs & track weekly
      • Along the bottom: Strengths, Weaknesses, and Trends
      • Strategic Planning Session
        • Download bonus chapter at scalingup.com
        • See Fortune’s Leadership Summit (spring) & Growth Summit (fall)
        • 4 main activities
          • Managers gather feedback from employees & customers
            • What should we start / stop / keep doing?
          • Middle management completes SWOT analysis & submits Top 3 Priority list
            • SWOT
              • introspective focus
              • great for execution planning
          • Senior Leadership completes SWT analysis & submits Top 3 Priority list
            • SWT = Strengths, Weaknesses & Trends (beyond their own industry or geography)
              • Strategic thinking = coming up with a few big-picture ideas
              • Execution planning = figuring out how to make them happen
              • Trends
                • significant changes in technology, distribution, markets, consumer & social developments
                • 4-6 trends that could shake up your industry
              • Strengths & Weaknesses anchor the “preserve the core” side of the OPSP
          • Everyone aims to learn & grow
  • Scaling Up Execution
    • Intro
      • Rockefeller Habits Checklist – review every 3 months
    • Priority
      • Rockefeller Habits 1, 2
      • Less is more in driving focus and alignment
      • Too many priorities = no priorities
      • Single priority: today, this week, this quarter, this year, the next decade
      • Cannot implement any of this without Habit #1
      • Order of other habits doesn’t matter; pick 1 or 2 each quarter
      • Over 24 to 36 months, you’ll have moved through all 10 habits
      • Habit #1 – Healthy Team
        • Unhealthy situations (5 Dysfunctions of a Team)
          • Absence of trust
          • Fear of conflict
          • Lack of commitment
          • Avoidance of accountability
          • Inattention to results
        • Build trust:
          • Personality and leadership style assessments = appreciate each others’ differences
          • Meal and social time
          • Shared learning
      • Habit #2 – The #1 Priority
        • One Critical Number
          • makes it easier to accomplish everything else
        • Identify the constraint (bottleneck) address it first
        • What is the most important and measurable choke point you need to fix / control in your business this coming year?
        • 3-tiered target
          • Red
          • Green
          • Super Green
        • Quarterly Themes
          • What is the single most important thing going on in the business in the next 90 days that we want everyone to be aligned on?
          • Within each theme, list smaller Rocks (column 5 of OPSP)
          • 30 minutes at weekly meetings address progress toward theme
          • Employees are asked to take ownership of the Rocks in their areas of responsibility
          • Alternate between one focused on People side and one focused on Process side of the business
          • If the organization misses the mark
            • Repeat the Critical Number
            • Move on to another Critical Number
            • or Do a root-cause analysis and choose one of the reasons to fix next quarter
          • No one’s paycheck should suffer because the senior team chose an overly aggressive goal
          • Pick celebrations and rewards that are mostly for fun
          • 2-day, Get in the Game, workshop
          • Powerful Celebration Question: How did you do it?
            • Pick someone who you know contributed to reaching the Critical Number, have that person share his story
    • Data
      • Rockefeller Habits 5, 6, 9, 10
      • Qualitative and quantitative feedback provides clarity and foresight
      • Fundamental job of a leader is prediction; heart of leader’s ability to predict is data
      • Intelligence Gathering
        • Learn fast, act fast. Speed is key
        • Communicate daily… what they are hearing about competitors & learning in the field from customers
      • Metrics Everywhere
        • Quantitative metrics alone… incomplete. Qualitative insights… customers & competitors, advisors & experts
      • Habit #5 – Gather Employee Input
        • Have a Start / Stop / Keep conversation with 1 employee weekly
          • 15-45 minutes, focused
          • Employees who work directly w/ customers
          • New Hires
        • Discuss at Weekly Management Meeting
          • 10 minutes
        • Ongoing Feedback
          • Weekly input from employees re: obstacles & opportunities
          • Ask questions which will
            • Increase revenue
            • Reduce costs
            • Make something easier / better for the customers or employees
        • Close the Loop
          • Middle-management team responsible
          • Track the number of days it takes to implement the ideas
          • List all suggestions w/ update on progress
      • Habit #6 – Gather Customer Input
        • 4 Questions w/ at least 1 user weekly (talk directly with those benefiting from your product & services
          • How are you doing?
            • Get them to talk about themselves
            • What are their pain points? What are their priorities for the coming year?
            • Find out what the person’s bonus is tied to
              • Show how your products can help them achieve their targets
          • What’s going on in your industry / neighborhood?
            • What are the newest changes or technologies?
            • What are they thinking / feeling / talking about?
          • What do you hear about our competitors?
            • Probably most important
          • How are we doing?
            • Ask about their reactions to your offerings
        • Connect on an even level – your CFO should talk to their CFO
        • Discuss at weekly meeting
          • 20% of their leadership team’s meeting discussing feedback from customers
        • Involve all Employees
          • Require them to call in daily to a voice mailbox and leave a 3-minute update
        • Close the Loop
          • Middle-management team
            • Reports to sr. leader accountable for the customer advocacy function listed on FACe chart
        • Net Promoter Scores
      • Habit #9 – KPIs for Everyone
        • Linked directly to column 7 of OPSP
        • Each person must report on one or two KPIs weekly
        • Alignment
        • One Critical Number & 3-5 Rocks
          • Getting everyone in the company to accomplish one additional thing that is aligned w/ the company’s focus every 90 days
          • All employees or teams need to set a handful of priorities (rocks) that will help them achieve their Critical Number
        • Peer Coach
          • All execs & middle managers should have peer coach
            • Holds them accountable for behavioral changes
            • External
            • Leads quarterly and annual planning sessions
            • Checks in monthly to monitor progress
          • Everyone, internally
            • Based on your own column 7 of the OPSP
            • One-Page Personal Plan
            • Choose 5 behaviors or actions you need to start or stop
            • Report your progress each day to your peer coach
            • Peer Coaching Overview
      • Habit #10 – Scoreboards Everywhere
        • Metrics, goals, plans displayed in Situation Room
        • Core Values, Purpose, Priorities everywhere
      • Accountability Management Systems
        • AlignWithGazelles.com
    • Meeting Rhythm
      • Rockefeller Habit 3
      • Give yourself the time to make better / faster decisions
      • Chapter 11 of Managing Up
        • All executive assistants read
      • Meetings equal…
        • 10% of workweek for Sr. leadership
        • 5-7% for middle managers
        • 3% for frontline
      • Quarterly & annual meetings = updating the Growth Tools, inc. OPSP
      • 3 Advantages to Meeting Regularly
        • Peer pressure
        • Collective intelligence
        • Clear communications
      • Habit #3 – Meeting Rhythm
        • Daily Huddle – 5 to 15 minutes
          • Scrum
          • Critical to include specifics
          • Start the meeting on time whether everyone is there or not
          • Who? Have more people in fewer meetings
          • Agenda
            • What’s up? (Next 24 hrs)
              • 1st 5 minutes
              • Detect conflicts, crossed agendas & missed opportunities immediately
              • Should relate to key activities, meetings, discussions
                • NOT a recitation of someone’s daily calendar
            • What are the daily metrics?
              • You’re looking for patterns and trends
            • Where are you stuck?
              • Bring up constraints and concerns that could prevent them from having a great next 24 hours – what’s the rock in their shoe?
              • Should share a “stuck” even if nobody can help them
              • 2+ days w/out a “stuck” = bigger problem
              • Conversations about bottlenecks shouldn’t drift into problem-solving
        • Weekly Meeting – 60 to 90 minutes
          • Review progress on the quarterly priorities
          • Discuss market intelligence
            • Customers, Employees, Competitors
          • Everyone is well-informed via Daily Huddles
          • Keep everyone focused on #1 priority & big rocks supporting it
          • 1 or 2 important topics = resolve 50 to 100 important things in 1 year
          • “Council”
          • End with Who’s going to do What, When
          • Monthly, quarterly and annual meetings can consume this weekly meeting
          • Agenda
            • 5 min: good news (personal & professional)
            • 10 min: priorities
              • Red, Green & Super Green
            • 10 min: Customer & employee feedback
            • 30-60 min: 1 or 2 topics
              • patterns and trends from the daily huddles
              • progress on your priorities / theme
              • feedback from employees & customers
              • opportunities & challenges
              • potential partnership
              • major event
            • Who, What, When
            • One-Phrase Close
              • everyone sums up w/ a word or phrase of reaction
          • End before lunch or happy hour
          • Weekly CEO One-Pager
            • Status of the #1 priority
            • Other significant developments
        • Monthly Mgt Meeting – 1/2 to full day
          • Sr, middle and frontline managers
          • Collectively address one or two big issues
          • Transfer DNA from upper to middle management
          • Learning, Sharing & Problem Solving
        • Quarterly and Annual Planning – 1 to 3-day off site
  • Scaling Up Cash
    • Intro
      • Great companies keep 3-10x more cash than competitors
        • MSFT always kept 1 year opex in the bank
    • Cash – Accelerating Cash Flow
      • Cash fuels growth
      • Cash Conversion Cycle (CCC)
      • Cash Acceleration Strategies (CASh)
        • Opportunities
          • Available cash reported daily w/ explanation of why it changed in the last 24 hrs
            • Chart against AR and AP weekly
          • If you want to be paid sooner, ask
          • Get invoices out more quickly
          • Send reminders 5 days before deadline
          • Get recurring invoices on credit card to automate on-time payments
          • Why are your customers paying late?
          • Pay your own expenses w/ credit card (float) & get your customers to pay via credit card
        • All fall in 3 general categories
          • Shorten cycle times
            • Lean
            • Eliminate wasted time
            • Specify a due date instead of “due in 30 days”
          • Eliminate mistakes
            • #1 reason they are slow to pay
          • Change the business model
        • Improve Profitability
          • When you improve profitability, it improves cash
          • Recurring charges are the ones that really kill you
    • Accounting – Driving Profitability
      • Crabtree’s Simple Numbers, Straight Talk
      • Waterfall Graphs
        • View the gross margin, profit and cash flow by categories such as individual customer, location, product line, salesperson, etc.
      • Trend Analysis
        • MapPoint – mapping sales by geographic region to find trends & identify opportunities
      • Simple Numbers
        • Clear the distortions
          • Gross Margin Dollars
            • Revenue is vanity when it comes to your P&L
            • Revenue minus all non-labor direct costs
            • Focus on gross margin dollars than gross margin as a percentage
            • Never base sales compensation on revenue
        • Set appropriate profit targets
          • Define profit as a % of gross margin once gross margin gets below 40% (otherwise, use revenue)
          • 5% pretax profit = life support
          • 10% = doing well but has untapped potential
          • 15% = business is in great shape
          • Over 15% = earn it while you can
        • User labor efficiency to drive profitability
          • Measure of the productivity of each dollar we spend on labor
          • 3 segments
            • Direct Labor Efficiency
              • Employees who spend 50% or more of their time delivering on the product or service
              • Accountable for the work you put in front of them
                • Measured against gross margin
            • Sales
              • Grow revenue
            • Management
              • Manage gross margins, direct labor performance and sales
          • Avoid splitting people across multiple groups
          • Do not add payroll taxes & benefits; only count wages and bonuses
          • Get to 15% profitability, add labor until you’re down to 10%, get back up to 15%, repeat.
          • 10% is the new breakeven
        • Understand the 4 Forces of Cash Flow
          • Taxes
          • Manage Debt
          • Core Capital Target
            • Have 2 months opex in cash
            • After this you can harvest profits for further growth or distribution
          • Harvest Profits by Paying Dividends
    • Power of One – 7 Key Financial Levers
      • Profit vs. Cash
        • Growing a business, cash is more important
        • A healthy P&L can mask pending cash flow issues
        • “Revenue is vanity, profit is sanity and cash flow is king”
        • Cash Flow
          • Cash flow is the change in cash and debt balances across a given period
          • Profit is an opinion & can be manipulated to provide a specific outcome
          • Only your cash and debt balances are facts
        • 2 Uses of Cash
          • Invest growth
          • Fund management-influenced waste
      • Operational Efficiency and Sales Effectiveness
        • P&L efficiency (how much profit is produced from every $1 of revenue) = how efficiently you’re operating & if you’re squeezing the most profit from every dollar of revenue
      • Minimum Return on Assets
        • Midsize businesses should target a minimum 30% return on net assets
      • 4 Drivers (in order to change your business)
        • Profitability
        • Working Capital Management
          • Amount of cash that your business requires to trade
          • Consumed by AR and inventory
          • Working Capital Days
            • Total days worth of working capital
        • Noncurrent Asset Management
        • Cash Flow / Funding
      • Marginal Cash Flow
        • Amount of cash retained by the business / compares it to the amount of cash the business produces at the gross margin level
      • Power of One & 7 Levers
        • Tweak one of these 7 financial levers to improve cash:
          • Price
          • Volume
          • Cost of goods sold / direct costs
          • Operating Expenses
          • Accounts Receivable
          • Inventory / work in progress
          • Accounts Payable
        • 1% or one-day change is made to each of these levers
        • Turn these changes into a formal KPI structure
        • cashflowstory.com
  • Next Steps
    • https://www.growthinstitute.com/
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